The diagram illustrates the three first satellite missions designed to measure the radiation emitted from the Earth at L-band (ESA's SMOS, NASA/CONAE Aquarius/SAC-D and NASA SMAP) and their continuation through the candidate mission Copernicus Imaging Microwave Radiometer (CIMR).

The figure shows the simulated CIMR sea ice concentration field. The sea ice concentration is computed using the Bristol algorithm as an example, applied on simulated brightness temperatures at the resolution of CIMR.

The CIMR mission is specifically designed to ensure sub-daily coverage everywhere in the Arctic region, so as to support the Integrated EU Arctic Policy. Particularly, CIMR will achieve full sub-daily coverage of the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas (including "no hole at the pole").

Scanning geometry of the Copernicus Imaging Microwave Radiometer (CIMR) instrument. Forward and backward scans are a unique feature of the mission.

These maps combine the daily (24h) Synthetic Apperture Radar (SAR) Arctic coverage of Copernicus Sentinel-1 A and B satellites (orange), with unique ship visits 2009-2016 in the Arctic (blue-yellow).

Average top of atmosphere brightness temperatures (Tbs) and standard deviations of Arctic open water, first-year and multiyear sea ice at typical imaging frequencies between L-band (1.4 GHz) and W-band (89 GHz).

With Arctic sea ice retreating, Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is an increasingly important parameter to observe. Infrared (IR) sensors, such as Sentinel-3 SLSTR are blocked by clouds. Being an advanced Passive Microwave instrumnent, CIMR will measure SST through clouds at 15 km resolution.

The diagram illustrates the frequency channels of the candidate Copernicus Imaging Microwave Radiometer (CIMR) mission, and their targeted spatial resolutions. CIMR is also compared to two other similar Passive Microwave Radiometers (PMR): the Japanese AMSR2 in orbit since 2012, and the MWI to fly on-board the European EPS-SG satellites from ~2023 (MWI-SG).